71. Nyffeler M, Birkhofer K (2017) An estimated 400-800 milion tons of prey are annually killed by the global spider community. The Science of Nature

70. Birkhofer K et al. (2017) Methods to identify the prey of invertebrate predators in terrestrial field studies. Ecology and Evolution

69. Birkhofer K et al. (2017) Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and belowground arthropod communities. Journal of Animal Ecology

68. Mader V, Diehl E, Fiedler D, Thorn S, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2017) Trade-offs in arthropod conservation between productive and non-productive agri-environmental schemes along a landscape complexity gradient. Insect Conservation and Diversity

67. Roubinet E, Birkhofer K, Malsher G, Staudacher K, Ekbom B, Traugott M (accepted) Diet of generalist predators reflects effects of cropping period and farming system on extra- and intraguild prey. Ecological Applications


66. Hanson HI, Birkhofer K, Smith HG, Palmu E, Hedlund K (in press) Agricultural land use affects abundance and dispersal tendency of predatory arthropods. Basic and Applied Ecology

65. Gossner MM et al. (2016) Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities. Nature 540: 266-269

64. Soliveres S et al. (2016) Biodiversity at multiple trophic levels is needed for ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 536: 456-459

63. Arvidsson F, Jonsson LJ, Birkhofer K (2016) Geographic location, not forest type, affects the diversity of spider communities sampled with malaise traps in Sweden. Annals Zoologici Fennici 53: 215-227.

62. Rundlöf M, Smith HG, Birkhofer K (2016) Effects of organic farming on biodiversity. Wiley eLS (electronic Library of Science) DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0026342

61. Birkhofer K, Smith HG, Rundlöf M (2016) Environmental impacts of organic farming. Wiley eLS (electronic Library of Science) DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0026341

60. Birkhofer K, Arvidsson F, Ehlers D, Mader VL, Bengtsson J, Smith HG (2016) Landscape complexity and organic farming independently affect the biological control of hemipteran pests and yields in spring barley. Landscape Ecology 31: 567-579

59. Birkhofer K, Dietrich C, John K, Schorpp Q, Zaitsev AS, Wolters V  (2016) Regional conditions and land-use alter the contribution of soil arthropods to ecosystem services in grasslands. Frontiers in Agroecology and Land-Use Systems 3: 150

58. Diekötter T, Wamser S, Dörner T, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (accepted) Organic farming affects the potential of a granivorous carabid beetle to control arable weeds at local and landscape scales. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 18: 167-173

57. Styles D, Börjesson P, d’Hertefeldt T, Birkhofer K, Dauber J, Adams P, Patil S, Pagella T, Pettersson LB, Peck P, Vaneeckhaute C (2016) Climate regulation, energy provisioning and water purification: quantifying ecosystem service delivery of bioenergy willow grown on riparian buffer zones using life cycle assessment. Ambio DOI 10.1007/s13280-016-0790-9

56. Ekroos J et al. (2016) Sparing land for biodiversity at multiple spatial scales. Frontiers in Agroecology and Land Use Systems 3: 145

55. Mader V, Birkhofer K, Fiedler D, Thorn S, Wolters V, Diehl E (2016) Land-use at different spatial scales alters the functional role of web-building spiders in arthropod food-webs. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 219: 152-162

54. Hanson H, Palmu E, Birkhofer K, Smith HG, Hedlund K (2016) Agricultural land use determines the trait composition of ground beetle communities. PLoS One 11: e0146329.

53. Soliveres S et al. (2016) Locally rare species influence grassland ecosystem multifunctionality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 371: 20150269


52. Birkhofer K, Smith, HG, Weisser, WW, Wolters V, Gossner M (2015) Land-use effects on the functional distinctness of arthropod communities. Ecography 38: 889-900

51. Birkhofer K, Meub C, Stötzel K, Wolters V, Diekötter T (2015) Optimizing arthropod predator conservation in permanent grasslands by considering diversity components beyond species richness. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 211: 65-72

50. Birkhofer K, Diehl E, Andersson J, Ekroos J, Früh-Müller A, Machnikowski F, Mader VL Nilsson L, Sasaki K, Rundlöf M, Wolters V, Smith HG (2015) Ecosystem services – current challenges and opportunities for ecological research. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2: 1-12

49. Sereda E, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2015) Addition of crop residues affects a detritus-based food chain depending on litter type and farming system. Basic and Applied Ecology 16: 746-754

48. Hines J et al. (2015) Towards an integration of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and food web theory to advance the understanding of connections between multiple ecosystem functions and service provisioning. Advances in Ecological Research 53: 161-199

47. Rusch A, Birkhofer K, Bommarco R, Smith HG, Ekbom B (2015) Predator body sizes and habitat preferences predict predation rates in an agroecosystem. Basic and Applied Ecology 16: 250-259

46. Tsiafouli M et al. (2015) Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe. Global Change Biology 21: 973-985

45. Serbina L, Burckhardt D, Birkhofer K, Syfert M, Halbert SE (2015) The potato pest Russelliana solanicola Tuthill (Hemiptera: Psylloidea): taxonomy and host-plant patterns. Zootaxa 4021: 33-62


44. Birkhofer K, Ekroos J, Corlett B, Smith HG (2014) Winners and losers of organic cereal farming in animal communities across Central and Northern Europe. Biological Conservation 175: 25-33

43. Birkhofer K, Wolters V, Diekötter T (2014) Grassy margins along organically managed cereal fields foster trait diversity and taxonomic distinctness of arthropod communities. Insect Conservation and Diversity 7: 274-287

42. Birkhofer K, Bilde T, Bird T, Lubin YD (2014) Spatial patterns of social spider colonies in Namibia reflect habitat features and dispersal modes. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 69: 1-7

41. Birkhofer K, Ekroos J, Smith HG (2014) Effects of maize on the diversity of arthropod predators and its value as a resource for arthropod fauna. Nordic Association of Agricultural Science Report 10: 55-56

40. Sereda E, Blick T, Dorow WHO, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2014) Assessing spider diversity on the forest floor: expert knowledge beats a regular sampling design. Journal of Arachnology 42: 44-51

39. Diekötter T, Wamser S, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2014) Corrigendum to "Landscape and management effects on structure and function of soil arthropod communities in winter wheat" Agriculture Ecosystem & Environment 137 (1-2) (2010) 108-112]. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 184: 182

38. Rusch A, Birkhofer K, Bommarco R, Smith HG, Ekbom B (2014) Management intensity at field and landscape levels affects the taxonomic and functional structure of generalist predator communities. Oecologia 175: 971-983

37. Effiom E, Birkhofer K, Smith HG, Olssen O (2014) Changes of community composition at multiple trophic levels due to hunting in Nigerian tropical forests. Ecography 37: 367-377

36. Williams A, Birkhofer K, Hedlund K (2014) Above- and below-ground interactions with agricultural management: effects of soil microbial communities on barley and aphids. Pedobiologia 57: 67-74

35. Rader R, Birkhofer K, Schmucki R, Smith HG, Stjernman M, Lindborg R (2014) Organic farming and heterogeneous landscapes positively affect different measures of plant diversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 1544-1553

34. Allan E & 41 co-authors (2014) Inter-annual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity. PNAS 111: 308-313

33. Setälä H, Birkhofer K, Brady M, Byrne L, Vriese FT, Gardif C, Hotes S, Hedlund K, Liiria M, Mortimer S, Pavao-Zuckerman M, Pouyat R, Tsiafouli M, Hemerik L, Bardgett R, de Ruiter PC, van der Putten WH (2014) Urban and agricultural soils: conflicts and trade-offs in the optimization of ecosystem services. Urban Ecosystems 17: 239-253


32. Diehl E, Mader VL, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2013) Management intensity and vegetation complexity affect web-building spiders and their prey. Oecologia 173: 579-589

31. Diehl E, Sereda E, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2013) Effects of predator specialization, host plant and climate on biological control of aphids by natural enemies: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 50: 262-270

30. Jonason D, Smith HG, Bengtsson J, Birkhofer K (2013) Landscape simplification promotes weed seed predation by carabid beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae). Landscape Ecology 28: 478-494

29. de Vries F & 23 co-authors (2014) Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems. PNAS 110: 14296-14301

28. Andersson GKS, Birkhofer K, Rundlöf M, Smith HG (2013) Landscape heterogeneity and farming practice alter the species composition and taxonomic breadth of pollinator communities. Basic and Applied Ecology 14: 540-546


27. Birkhofer K, Henschel JH, Lubin Y (2012) Effects of extreme climatic events on small-scale spatial patterns: A 20-year study of the distribution of a desert spider. Oecologia 170: 651-657

26. Birkhofer K, Wolters V (2012) The global relationship between climate, net primary production and the diet of spiders. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21: 100-108

25. Birkhofer K & 37 co-authors (2012) General relationships between abiotic soil properties and soil biota across spatial scales and different land-use types. PLoS ONE 7: e43292

24. Sereda E, Blick T, Dorow WHO, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2012) Spatial distribution of spiders and epedaphic Collembola in an environmentally heterogeneous forest floor habitat. Pedobiologia 55: 241-245

23. Jurczyk M, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2012) Utilization of prey-rich patches leads to reproductive advantages for clustered individuals of a web-building spider. Ecoscience 19: 170-176

22. Diehl E, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2012) Arable weeds in organically managed wheat fields foster carabid beetles by resource- and structure-mediated effects. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 6: 75-82

21. Blüthgen N & 28 co-authors(2012) A quantitative index of land-use intensity in grasslands: integrating mowing, grazing and fertilization. Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 207–220


20. Birkhofer K, Wolters V, Diekötter T (2011) Density-dependent and -independent effects on the joint use of space by predators and prey in terrestrial arthropod food-webs. Oikos 120: 1705-1711

19. Birkhofer K, Diekötter T, Boch S, Fischer M, Müller J, Socher S, Wolters V (2011) Soil fauna feeding activity in temperate grassland soils increases with legume and grass species richness. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 2200-2207

18. Birkhofer K, Fließbach A, Wise DH, Scheu S (2011) Arthropod food webs in organic and conventional wheat farming systems: a stable isotope approach. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13: 197-204.

17. Schneider C, Ekschmitt K, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2011) Ring versus disc-based separation of spatial scales: a case study on the impact of arable land proportions on invertebrates in freshwater streams. Aquatic Ecology 45: 351-356.

16. Wamser S, Dauber J, Birkhofer K, Wolters V (2011) Delayed colonisation of arable fields by spring breeding ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in landscapes with a high availability of hibernation sites. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 144: 235-240

15. Hauffe T; Albrecht C; Schreiber K; Birkhofer K; Trajanovski S & Wilke T (2011): Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid. Biogeosciences 8: 175-188.


14. Birkhofer K, Scheu S, Wiegand T (2010) Assessing spatiotemporal predator-prey patterns in heterogeneous habitats. Basic and Applied Ecology  11: 486-494

13. Diekötter T, Wamser S, Wolters V, Birkhofer K (2010) Landscape and management effects on structure and function of soil arthropod communities in winter wheat. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment  137: 108-112

12. Hauffe T; Albrecht C; Schreiber K; Birkhofer K; Trajanovski S & Wilke T (2010): Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid. Biogeosciences Discussions 7: 4953-4985.

11. Vucic-Pestic O, Birkhofer K, Rall BC, Scheu S, Brose U (2010) Habitat structure and prey aggregation determine the functional response in a soil predator-prey interaction. Pedobiologia 53: 307-312

10. Dahms H, Mayr S, Birkhofer K, Chauvat M, Melnichnova E, Wolters V, Dauber J (2010) Contrasting diversity patterns of epigeic arthropods between grasslands of high and low agronomic potential. Basic and Applied Ecology 11: 6-14


9. Haubert D, Birkhofer K, Fließbach A, Gehre M, Scheu S, Ruess L (2009) Trophic structure and major trophic links in conventional vs organic farming systems as indicated by carbon stable isotope ratios of fatty acids. Oikos 118:1579-1589

8. Lubin Y, Birkhofer K, Berger-Tal R, Bilde T (2009) Limited male dispersal in a social spider with extreme inbreeding. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 97: 227-234


7. Birkhofer K, Fließbach A, Wise DH, Scheu S (2008) Generalist predators in organically and conventionally managed grass-clover fields: implications for conservation biological control. Annals of Applied Biology 153: 271-280

6. Birkhofer K, Bezemer TM, Bloem J, Bonkowski M, Christensen S, Dubois D, Ekelund F, Fließbach A, Gunst L, Hedlund K, Mäder P, Mikola J, Robin C, Setälä H, Tatin-Froux F, Van der Putten WH, Scheu S (2008) Long-term organic farming fosters below- and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40: 2297-2308

5. Birkhofer K, Gavish-Regev E, Endlweber K, Lubin YD, von Berg K, Wise DH, Scheu S (2008) Cursorial spiders retard initial aphid population growth at low densities in winter wheat. Bulletin of Entomological Research 98: 249-255

4. Birkhofer K, Wise DH, Scheu S (2008) Subsidy from the detrital food web, but not microhabitat complexity, affects the role of generalist predators in an aboveground herbivore food web. Oikos 117: 494–500


3. Birkhofer K, Scheu S, Wise DH (2007) Small-scale spatial pattern of web-building spiders (Araneae) in alfalfa: Relationship to disturbance from cutting, prey availability, and intraguild interactions. Environmental Entomology 36: 801-810

2. Bilde T, Coates KMS, Birkhofer K, Bird T, Maklakov A, Lubin Y, Avilés L (2007) Survival benefits select for group living despite reproductive cost in a social spider. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 2412-2426


1. Birkhofer K, Henschel JR, Scheu S (2006) Spatial-pattern analysis in a territorial spider: evidence for multi-scale effects. Ecography 29: 641-648

Book chapter

6. Smith HG, Birkhofer K, Clough Y, Ekroos J, Olsson O, Rundlöf M (2014) Beyond dispersal: the role of animal movement in modern agricultural landscapes. In: Hansson L-A, Åkesson S (eds) Animal movement across scales. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780199677191

5. Birkhofer K, Dänhardt J (2013) Biologisk kontroll – en reglerande ekosystemtjäns. In: Dänhardt J et al. (eds) kosystemtjänster i det skånska jordbrukslandskapet. CEC Syntes Nr 01. Centrum för miljö- och klimatforskning, Lunds universitet. ISBN: 9789198157703 [in Swedish]

4. Birkhofer K, Entling M, Lubin Y (2013) Agroecology: Trait composition, spatial relationships, trophic interactions. In: Penney D (ed) Spider research in the 21st century: trends & perspectives. Siri Scientific Press. ISBN: 9780957453012

3. Birkhofer K, Bezemer TM, Hedlund K, Setälä H (2012) Community composition of soil organisms under different wheat farming systems. In: Cheeke, T, Coleman, DC, Wall, DH (eds) Microbial Ecology in Sustainable Agroecosystems. Advances in Agroecology, CRC Press, ISBN: 9781439852965

2. Birkhofer K, Endlweber K, Wolters, V (2010) Einfluss der Landnutzung auf Diversität und Funktion der ober- und unterirdischen Fauna. In: Hotes S, Wolters V (eds) Forum Biodiversität. Oekom Verlag, ISBN: 9783865811721 [in German]

1. Birkhofer K, Wolters V (2010) Der Einfluss anthropogener Stickstoffeinträge auf die Diversität und Funktion von Bodenorganismen [The impact of anthropogenic nitrogen emission on the diversity and functionality of soil organisms]. In: Schütze G, Mohaupt-Jahr B (eds) Modellierung und Kartierung räumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeinträgen in Ökosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Umwelt Bundes Amt Texte 10, ISSN 1862-4804 [in German]